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Hibernation is mainly controlled by the endocrine system. Glands in the body alter the amounts of hormones being cheap moncler jackets released and can control just about every physiological aspect of hibernation.
Thyroid gland that controls metabolism and activity levelsMelatonin hormone that controls the growth of winter coatsPituitary gland that controls fat buildup, heart rate and breathing rate, as well as metabolic functionsInsulin hormone that regulates the amount of glucose (sugar) needed by the animalWhen a mammal enters hibernation, it becomes somewhat like a coldblooded animal. Its body temperature will vary depending on the temperature around it. However, there is a minimum temperature, known as a set point. It's just like setting the temperature on your thermostat at home. When the mammal's body temperature reaches the set point, the metabolism kicks in and burns some fat reserves. This generates some energy, which is in turn used to heat things back up above the set point. Larger animals have a higher set point. If they let their temperature drop too low, it would require an enormous amount of energy to heat back up again.
Several other things occur when an animal is hibernating: Heart rate drops to as little as 2.5 percent of its usual level. Yes, 100 percent. Some animals stop breathing entirely. This varies by species, but many hibernating animals are completely oblivious to their surroundings and are nearly impossible to wake up. If you were to wake up a hibernating animal midwinter, you would be effectively killing it. This can be very efficient Arctic ground squirrels live entirely off of stored body fat for as long as nine months. Some species are unable to store enough body fat, so those animals have a lighter hibernation, allowing them to awaken periodically for cheap moncler jackets sale a snack.
If an animal is burning fat or snacking on stored nuts all winter, what happens to all moncler jackets outlet the waste? No fecal matter is produced because nothing is passing through the digestive tract and intestines. But the body is always producing urea, the waste product that is the main component of urine. Hibernating animals' bodies are able to recycle the urea. Bears don't urinate all winter, but they break the urea down into amino acids. Even though they don't drink, they don't get dehydrated either. They're able to extract enough water from their own body fat to stay hydrated.